Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have ad esempio down onesto us, none has been found durante association with his inscribed name

Although sculptural portraits of Caligula have ad esempio down onesto us, none has been found durante association with his inscribed name

For this reason, Caligula’s iconographic hairstyle, especially with regard esatto the arrangement of the fringe of locks over the forehead, is of great importance mediante identifying his portraits. Although the configuration of locks is by niente affatto means identical per all respects in images of per given portrait type, hairstyles were generally far easier esatto carve sopra marble than facial features (even by less talented sculptors), and they therefore provide an important index for identifying portraits.

Consequently, the only reliable images for determining his physical appearance are those on labeled coins, which provide us with either his right or left profile

My focus here is on the “image” of Caligula as transmitted to us by not only the ancient visual evidence, consisting largely of sculpture and coinage, but also the literary sources representing the views of his detractors. These numismatic profile views can be compared with sculptural portraits-in-the-tempo sicuro establish the identity of the imperial personage represented. Though representations of Caligula sopra the form of portraits must also certainly have existed, none has survived from antiquity.

Whether numismatic or sculptural, the extant portraits of Caligula and other members of the imperial family ultimately reflect, onesto some degree, verso three-dimensional “Urbild,” or prototype, for which the individual presumably sat. These prototypes, which were probably first produced mediante clay, no longer survive, but they would have been used for argilla or plaster models that would presumably have been made available by imperial agents for distribution throughout the Completare, both through military channels and inizio the “art market.” However, there is giammai surviving material evidence for these putative plaster or terracotta casts of Roman portraits. Other types of models may also have been distributed modo the art market. One possibility not considered sopra the past is the dissemination of painted wax face-mask models, though we have in nessun caso direct evidence for this either.

Instead, provincial imperial portraits often conformed puro local, traditional concepts of leadership, suggesting that the central government of Rome only made models available for distribution but did not control how closely they were followed. Local agreable pressures would nevertheless have assured that the imperial image was both dignified and appropriately displayed. Durante other areas of production, there is reason puro believe that the central government, through its agents, did play per direct role per disseminating imperial images, including determining how they would immagine (as per the case of state coinage, which was under the direct control of the Princeps). The involvement of imperial agents would likely have also been necessary, for example, when there was per need sicuro make imperial images available rather quickly esatto the military throughout the Colmare. These images were undoubtedly required con military camps sopra administering the loyalty oath (sacramentum) onesto per new Princeps and/or, when necessary, onesto his officially designated successor.

Many of the portraits produced in the provinces for civic contexts and municipal or colonial worship did not closely follow the imagery of Roman state models, which reflected the official ideology of the principate

The imperial image before which soldiers usually swore their oath — at least initially to a new Princeps — probably took the form of a small bronze imago clipeata (“shield portrait”) or some sort of small bust braccio like that attached to the military norma (signum) carried per battle, or it may even have been verso small bust affixed to the top of a plain pole as per finial. Such standards and poles were also used in parades and kept sopra the shrine (sacellum or aedes) of per military camp along with portrait statues of the Princeps (and his designated successor), images of the gods, and other military insignia. Thus, represented on the Severan Arch of the Argentarii mediante Rome is verso Praetorian canone with attached small busts of Septimius Severus (below) and his young bruissement and designated successor Caracalla (above)(fig. 9a-b).

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